It lives in groups of 6 to 8 individuals and, as opposed to other species of tamarins, there is only one male per group, which mates with all the females. It spends most of its time on the lower branches of trees and rarely climbs to over 5 metres in height to forage for fruit. The Goeldi's marmoset communicates with the others using voiced sounds - cries that can be heard more than 100 metres away, its sense of smell and body language.
It is a daytime animal spending some time on grooming others. When night falls, all members of the group sleep together in tree hollows and areas of dense vegetation. Goeldi's marmoset can leap from tree to tree spanning a distance of up to 4 metres.